what are the Types of Hypersensitivity and vaccination and Uses

what is Hypersensitivity and vaccination

Hypersensitivity and vaccination Hypersensitivity: It is defined as the reaction of immune system leading to serve and even death indian sensitized animals when we exposed to the same antigen time. Types of hypersensitivity : Hypersensitivity is classified into two ways:-  based on time taken for the reaction  based on the mechanism of pathogen 1} Based … Read more

what are the types of Isotopes in biology and Radioactivity isotopes

what are isotopes

Isotopes in biology The Phenomenon of natural radioactivity was accidentally discovered by the french scientist henry becquerel. When he found that crystals of potassium uranyl sulphate spontaneously emitted a radiation which could blacken photographic plate. Subsequently other naturally radioactive elements like radium, thorium and radon were discovered. Isotopes: the word isotope is derived from the … Read more

What is Chromatography uses and Types of Chromatography


Partition principle: When a solute is allowed to equalibrate itself between two equals volumes of two immiscible liquids the ratio of the concentration of the solute in the two phases at equilibrium at a given temperature is called the partition coefficient. A mixture of substance with different partitions coefficients can be quantitatively separated by a … Read more

What Are The Uses Of Spectrophotometry Types Of Spectrophotometry


Spectrophotometry spectrum of light light is supposed to have a dual characteristics corpuscular and wave form. thus a beam of light has an Electromagnetic wave form a {or} photon of energy propagated at 3×108m/sec at the speed of light. The term Electromagnetic is precise description of the radiation in that radiation is made up of … Read more

what is the lock and key hypothesis of enzyme action

lock and key hypothesis

Lock and key hypothesis:- This model assumes that enzyme and substrate have mutual complementary structure in their free state and are rigid molecules. Any compound having complementary structure to the enzyme can bind to the enzyme and the reaction is possible where as any compound that takes complementary structure to the enzyme cannot bind to … Read more

what type of Factors affecting enzyme activity uses

factors that effecting enzymes activity

 Factors affecting enzyme activity:- The contact between enzyme and substrate is the most essential for enzyme activity. Concentration of enzymes:- As the concentration of enzymes increases the velocity of the reaction proportionally increases. Concentration of substrate:- In the substrate concentration gradually increases the velocity of the enzyme reactions. A rectangular hyperbola is obtained when velocity … Read more

what are the Classification Of Enzymes types and uses Enzymes

classification of enzymes

Enzymes:- Enzymes are biocatalyst is defined as a substance that increases the velocity of the chemical reaction. Engines may be classified as biocatalyst synthesized by living cells these are protein in nature colloidal thermolabial in nature and specific in their reaction. These are active only at particular temperature at low temperature they are inactive and … Read more

what is classification of Lipids uses and type of classification of Lipids

Lipids:- Lipids are heterogeneous group of biomolecules pairing in different functional groups. Due to heterogeneity in the chemical nature lipids are defined based on two common physical properties. These are hydrophobic and insoluble in h2o they required plasma lipoproteins for the transport {ketone bodies are exception because they are relatively soluble in h2 o2} Classification … Read more

what are the Amino acids,Structure of amino acids,types of Amino acids? uses of Amino acids? classification of Amino acids

what are amino acids

Amino acids Amino acids are a group of organic compounds containing two functional groups. They are amino group and carboxylic group. Amino groups is basic while carboxyl group are acidic in nature.  Structure of amino acids:- Structure of amino acids The amino acids are termed as alpha amino acids if both the carbonyl and the … Read more

what are Nucleic acid and chromosomes? what are the uses of Nucleic acid and chromosomes? types of Nucleic acid and chromosomes?

dna stucture

Nucleic acid and chromosomes:- Chemical structure based composition of nucleic acid :- Nucleic acid is a long polymeric molecule, comprising of numerous monomers called nucleotides. Nucleotides is made up of three component-sugar, nitrogen base, phosphoric acid In dna, pentose sugar is deoxyribose, while in RNA it is ribose. The four nitrogen bases found in dna … Read more

what is Microbial control? what are the uses of Microbial control? types of Microbial control?

microbial control

Sterilization:- The process of making sterile.the killing of all forms of life.                          Disinfection:- An agent that frees from injection by killing the vegetative cell of microorganisms. antiseptic:-  acting against {or} opposing sepsis, faction {or} decay by either preventing {or} arresting the growth of organisms. Sanitization:- Sterilization:- the process of destroying all forms of microbial life. … Read more

what is Growth curve? what are the uses of Growth curve? types of Growth curve?

what is growth curve

lag phase:- the addition of inoculum to a new medium is not followed immediately by doubling of population. the population remains results temporary unchanged. during this page the individual cell increase in size beyond their normal dimensions. at the end of the lab phase each organism divides. Logarthamic {or} expotential phases:- during this period the … Read more

what is Nutritional requirements? uses of Nutritional requirements? types of Nutritional requirements?

nutritional requirments

All organisms require a source of energy some rely on chemical compounds for the energy and designated as chemotrops others can utilize radiant energy {light} are called phototrophs. Both chemo and phototrops exist among bacteria. All organisms require a source of electron for their metabolism. Some organisms can use reduced inorganic compounds as electron donors … Read more

what is the Classification of bacteriophages? what are the uses of Classification of bacteriophages? types of Classification of bacteriophages?


Ictv has a bacterial virus sub comittee working on the classification and nomenclature of bacteriophages The most extensively studied group of bacteriophages are coliphages so called since they infect the non motile strain-b of e coli They are designated t1 to t7 All these places are composed almost extensively of dna and protein The tails … Read more

what is Viruses? advantages and disadvantages of Viruses? classification of viruses? types of Viruses?


Characteristics of viruses:- The are not free living in and occur only as obligate intracellular parasites. They have only a single kind of nucleiacid-either DNA or RNA. But never both. Nucleic acid single molecule that have one replicon which may be single {or} double standard. The Outer shell capsid is mostly of protein, except few … Read more

what is characters constitute morphology? uses of characters constitute morphology? what is morphological analysis


Among the major characteristic of bacterial cells are their size, shape, structure and arrangement. these characters constitute morphology. Size  bacteria are very small, most being app. is 0.5- 1.0 new µm In diameter an important consequence of small size of microorganisms is that the surface area/ volume ratio limits the size of bacteria to microscopic … Read more