what are isotopes

Isotopes in biology | what are isotopes | what are Isotopes in biology | what is Radioactivity isotopes | type of Isotopes in biology |

Isotopes in biology

The Phenomenon of natural radioactivity was accidentally discovered by the french scientist henry becquerel. When he found that crystals of potassium uranyl sulphate spontaneously emitted a radiation which could blacken photographic plate. Subsequently other naturally radioactive elements like radium, thorium and radon were discovered.


the word isotope is derived from the greek, soody in 198 who first established the existence of atoms of the same element different atomic molecular weight and called them isotopes.


the stability of an isotope of a given element is dictated by the ratio of neutrons to protons in the nucleus. The relationship between the number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus can be seen by plotting the values of N against Z for known isotopes.

The stability of elements higher atomic numbers is as usually associated with a neutron to proton ratio. The first discovered natural radioactive elements were among the heaviest element.

natural radioactive elements were among the heaviest element
Isotopes in biology

IV Sem – important questions:

1.      B lymphocytes t 4 m
2.      Lymphocytes 4m
3.      Primary lymphoid organs 10 m
4.      Immunity 10 m
5.      Structure of antibody 10 m
6.      Classification of antibody 10 m
7.      Hypersensitivity { 10 m  }
8.      Precipitation {4 m}
9.      Agglutination {4m}
10.  Hybridoma technology for production of monoclonal antibodies 10 m
11.  Elisa {10 m}
12.  Vaccines {4m}
13.  Complement pathway {10 m}
14.  Adcc antibody development cellular { erythro foetalis, fabricas cytotoxic} {4m}
15.  Cell mediated immunity [10 m}
16.  MHC{4 or 10 m}
17.  Cytokinesis {4m}
18.  Antigen {4m}

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